Which lobe of the human brain is responsible for language?
And the answer: the temporal lobe.
Named for its location, which lies right behind the temple on a human head, the temporal lobe is mainly responsible for auditory processing. It helps in perceiving sounds, assigning meaning to them, and remembering them. It is also important for the formation of conscious memories.
The temporal lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cortex. Sitting just above the brainstem and cerebellum, the temporal lobe is the first point of contact for auditory stimuli in the brain. It plays the necessary role of assigning meaning to this stimuli, allowing humans to process and understand language and other sounds. The temporal lobe is also responsible for the process of selective hearing. Selective hearing allows humans to filter out unnecessary frequencies and focus on only important sounds from their environment.
The temporal lobe isn't only associated with the auditory system, however. it also plays an important role in interpreting visual stimuli. The temporal lobe helps establish object recognition, including complex objects, such as faces. As an essential feature of our body's the Limbic System — the system involved with motivation, emotion, learning, and memory — the temporal lobe is often a direct connector between the Limbic System and the rest of the brain.
More specifically, the left temporal lobe, which is typically the most dominant in people, is associated with understanding language, learning, memorizing, forming speech and remembering verbal information. The right temporal lobe, which is typically the least dominant in people, is associated with learning and memorizing non-verbal information (e.g. drawings and music), recognizing information, and determining facial expressions.
Learn more about the temporal lobe and its functions here.